Tilting and Shifting in Photography


Tilt

On a regular camera, the image plane (containing the film or image sensor), lens plane, and object plane are parallel, and objects in sharp focus are all at the same distance from the camera. When the lens plane is tilted relative to the image plane, the plane of focus (PoF) is at an angle to the image plane, and objects at different distances from the camera can all be sharply focused if they lie on a straight line. With the lens tilted, the image plane, lens plane, and PoF intersect at a common line; this behavior has become known as the Scheimpflug principle.

When the PoF coincides with an essentially flat subject, the entire subject is sharp; in applications such as landscape photography, getting everything sharp is often the objective.

The PoF can also be oriented so that only a small part of it passes through the subject, producing a very shallow region of sharpness, and the effect is quite different from that obtained simply by using a large aperture with a regular camera. It can be used to make a large scene appear much smaller, as the shallow depth of field is similar to that achieved by a macro lens on miniature subjects.

View camera users usually distinguish between rotating the lens about a horizontal axis (tilt), and rotation about a vertical axis (swing); small- and medium-format camera users often refer to either rotation as “tilt”.

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Shift

In a subject plane parallel to the image plane, parallel lines in the subject remain parallel in the image. If the image plane is not parallel to the subject, as when pointing a camera up to photograph a tall building, parallel lines converge, and the result sometimes appears unnatural, such as a building that appears to be leaning backwards. Shift is a movement of the lens parallel to the image plane that allows the line of sight to be changed while keeping the image plane (and thus focus) parallel to the subject; it can be used to photograph a tall building while keeping the sides of the building parallel. The lens can also be shifted in the opposite direction and the camera tilted up to accentuate the convergence for artistic effect.

Lenses designed for shifting have a much wider field of vision than a standard lens of the same focal length. Whereas the image frame fits tightly in a standard lens, the shifting lens has an imaging area many times wider. Shifting the lens allows different portions of the image circle to be cast onto the sensor plane, similar to cropping an area along the edge of an image.

Again, view camera users usually distinguish between vertical movements (rise and fall) and lateral movements (shift or cross), while small- and medium-format users often refer to both types of movements as “shift”.

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Miniature Faking

Miniature faking is a post-processing technique, which involves selectively blurring a photo to simulate the narrow depth of field found in macro photography and some tilt-shift photography, making the image appear to be of a miniature model.

car-pictures-tilt-shift-photography-1

https://i0.wp.com/www.autoblock.com/archive/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/car-pictures-tilt-shift-photography-5.jpg

https://i0.wp.com/digital-artist-toolbox.com/images/tiltshift/2164548818_14516b3aef.jpg

https://i0.wp.com/c2.api.ning.com/files/1XgrjbyaxYvOO8uQJDuv9znjiJxC2cnKx9KYjjdeA0VK05AiPwPedMzrclFyMrs2N9hDCISLr8OocxAZU9Qqw*0Tpsc6jEzb/london.jpg

http://willwm.files.wordpress.com/2008/08/106667213-c9f1fbee69-thumb.jpg

https://i2.wp.com/2.bp.blogspot.com/_3FTO6EjRbe4/SNYkXktvd0I/AAAAAAAAM8o/6loxqTZsJ8U/s400/miniature+faking+trg+-+4.jpg

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